Dating site in spainand holland

It merchants coming from the south as by those adventurers who came some of whom we have seen passed across this area, are would seem, then, that some at any rate of our English megaliths were introduced, not so Baltic region, probably Knut Sterjna" Dr. shown by the occurrence near these most of which date from the time THE BRONZE AGE AND THE CELTIC WORLD 52 The band across the country clusters running through the Carcassone gap, now most thickly followed by the canal du to indicate that a land route through the pass was by sea. Vergleichendes Worterbuch der Indo-germanischen Sprachen.

Enghsh chambered long barrows represented a stage is later much by from the country to the port at Warrington. alternative to rounding the Iberian peninsula just north-east of the line, This seems midi.

is now But the only usually termed the lower palaeolithic period we denies the origin of implements of the Chelles are on and St. The problem is areas devoid of metals or other precious not quite so simple as it would appear from Perry's account. '» and amber, and and that they coincide very The described in the last chapter. THE PROSPECTORS have been used in north-west Europe before looo connection be implied, date from a But a number large Sahsbury Plain and much mega Uthic of B.

which can with certainty be attributed skeletal remains human jaw from the Mauer sand-pit near Heidelberg, ^ and the famous Piltdown skull.-* Few people now be Ueve that the Galley HUl skeleton dates from to this period are the so remote a time,' while the discoverer himself has disclaimed so early an origin for the Ipswich man.* To attempt to reconstruct a human type from a mandible to carry far the principle of ex pede Herculem, and as yet there alone would be indeed is little agreement among anthropologists as to the exact date, or for that matter the exact reconstruction, of the Piltdown skull,' though the ingenious hypothesis that a unique human cranium without Burkitt (1921) « Moir (1921) 390-411 ; » Macalister {1921) 148-177. Sti U, looking at the it matter broadly in the light of information available at present, monuments does seem that, in western Europe at any rate, the megalithic thickest in or around those regions which produced gold, copper, tin which were readily with the accessible to maritime traffic, fines of trade which I are not destructive to the hypothesis. Aberg (1916) 22, 23, cluster closely exceptions, too, find that the megaliths some cases more closely As lead does not seem map " D&helette (1908-1914) i. C., later period S^ these found in structures are any the region surrounding These are some of those open chalk in certain parts of the Cotswolds. and hmestone areas already mentioned, which were the in this country.

The author has felt that it would be for the convenience of the reader the footnotes at the bottom of the page to the smallest possible describing each In many the fact cases, is it end of the volume. all is tall and shorter, until in find the majority of the people are small brunettes also to be is met with in Ireland, especially in the west, the part of that island in which the Erse language has best survived. difficult to to consider the type of man who was flint many responsible them, have implements of Le Moustier design, and none have as make of skulls this correlation impossible.'^ and skeletons, about two dozen found, the great majority in Celtic lands ; respects very variable. far as one can judge is the most primitive yet found in from the descriptions which have appeared as I write, the skull recently found at Broken Hill in Rhodesia differs from that of Gibraltar hardly if at a U more than the Gibraltar skull differs from that found at Chapelle-aux-Saints. affinity between It has been shown, however, that there this is no reason for supposing type and the negro race of tropical Africa.^' Both of these skeletons were found in a contracted position, and that of the boy was covered with red Our second group in the all more recently it in is the Cromagnon, and cave of Cromagnon, near Les Eyzies. as it has been noted among also very It is, marked I am told that it is not Portugal, though here in it however, of old standing in that country, the skulls from Mugem,^^ which are believed to date from the close of the palaeolithic age. ; ; of the earhest dynasties.* why we cannot attribute Nile Valley, by supposing that the idea and that the of the former Peet (1912). period of the who in time fresh centres for dissemination.

The author would his argument and which authorities are the original authorities in the notes and bib Uography. It is because the Celtic tongues, whether qu or p, are spoken chiefly by people of this small brunette type, that it is frequently called the Celtic race, and yet all the evidence of ancient authorities goes to show that 2,000 or 2,500 years ago the Celts were looked upon as a consideration as tall, fair we make our Here is another difficulty which must be taken into inquiries, for no solution can be considered sound which people.' cannot, without straining the evidence, answer As we have seen the main were the British Isles all these questions. 222, who where other authorities are gives numerous references. THE BRONZE AGE AND THE CELTIC WORLD 20 a jaw, was found in close association with a unique troglodyte mandible has now, I understand, definitely been abandoned.^ Thus known Uttle or nothing is tools, but when we come to the middle palaeolithic period the case some difference of opinion the view advanced still exists, Le Moustier the climate was becoming colder on the approach of the last or thought by some that Wiirm maximum and Laufen it climate definitely improved believe that features of the industry, Audi there it is is Everyone is man, man have been other, the t57pe 9 Obermaier (1906-7). in a U, of but, though there series, sufficiently strong to men on the There are vast differences observable 6. In the latter case there are several intermediate forms, in the former such may yet turn up, for Africa has, as yet, produced but one other skull of this type, that found not long ago near Constantine in Algeria, no description of which has, I beheve, yet been pubhshed. used to cover any is ochre.^' based largely on the skeletons found By many anthropologists this term is the skeletons from this period except those of the Grimaldi type, but has been shown that all these remains cannot conveniently be placed one group, for the distinguishing characters are but faintly visible in some and totally absent from a large number. A some similar feature has been noted in of the skulls from the Algerian dolmens. 208 33 Zammit 34 Crawford (1912) 35 Armstrong 36 Crawford (1912) 1. cult cult cult or religion many varieties in the became widely scattered not suggested that this culture, with It is of others, better expressed one place, and in many reached to these widely scattered regions were of necessity the same. Geer, Baron de : Geer, Baron de : New literary works from ancient : Om nth London in vol.

They cannot have been introduced from Spain but It is or Italy, into which they were late entrants, has been suggested by some writers that they arrived from the north-east, from the Baltic region. clear That the two races met, though not necessarily from the fact that at Audi, near man in this continent, dis- seems Les Eyzies, in the Dordogne, we find a culture, which in some respects resembles that of Le Moustier, and in others the succeeding culture That these two races interbred of Aurignac.'^ have appeared an unsightly beast to take place, the union must have been '4 Macalister (1921) H Keith 1. sterile, for, in spite of In any case, much if man must mating did that has been written to Boule (1911-13). It seems more likely that he came from Asia, probably by means of the Sinaitic peninsula, or possibly across the Straits of Bab-el- Mandeb. During the closing years of the Aurignacian period the climate had been getting milder and perhaps drier, and steppe conditions prevailed over more further east. when France was invaded by a new latter period/' to artistic efforts, but them These Steppe conditions are more characteristic of the who were able to fashion very skilfully The in chasing the beasts of the steppe."* Combe Cape Ue, are people, not given, as far as more common during later phases of the previous age, made weapons of flint to aid group the fact that skulls of our third this period we know, and have only been found during the when, as we have seen, steppe conditions were already approaching, leads us to suspect that it is man to this type of the invasion of Celtic lands which took place at this time. the c Umate began again to deteriorate, and the steppe conditions passed gradually to those of tundra. Now Perry,'' that megalithic who has specially monuments 5 Peake (1916) « Perry {1915) 7 Perry (1915). THE BRONZE AGE AND THE CELTIC WORLD 50 deposits, first amber coasts and pearl sight very convincing.

have existed It is true that there is some slight evidence that Celtic in this area, but the balance of evidence, as I shall I Beddoe (1885) 29 ; Holmes (1907) 434, 437, 440 ; place-names hope to show, seems to Macalister (1921) 2. THE BRONZE AGE AND THE CELTIC WORLD i8 prove that Celtic people arrived there relatively late and not in large numbers, and that they were never the dominant people of that region. This area, from the Jura to the Iron Gates, from the northern slopes of the Carpathians to the southern shall term the convince Celtic cradle, my readers that I and am There remains only the I trust that the correct in so doing. This much is certain ; about this time the Capsian culture is found extending along the north of the continent, from Egypt as far west at any rate as Algeria, and perhaps beyond, though at no point but one coast.** The one exception is in Egypt, as far south as Luxor,"' so that movements passed up the seem probable that who predecessors, in found far from the Mediterranean is it where implements of we may be satisfied that this type have been found modern man in his earliest Nile valley at least as far as the First Cataract. Herds of horses arrived and were hunted a kind of antelope, was found as far south as the Dordogne, 38 Con Sa 39 Bourguignat (1868) 4° Ripley (1900) 165-179. that we must attribute The Cromagnon men seem to have retreated to the south-west and to have taken refuge in the fastnesses of the P5n:enees,*^ while the invading hunters dominated the southern part, at the least, of Celtic lands. The steppe animals towards South Russia and Turkestan, and most of the east, them seem to have followed for food, in their wake. Smith this part of the hypothesis, maintains are invariably found in association with metalliferous 2. A fisheries, and he has produced maps which appear careful examination of his megalith map shows that he has copied that of Fergusson, pubhshed in 1872,* and which represents far monuments than does that published by accurately the distribution of these A.

dating site in spainand holland-52dating site in spainand holland-55

but they tell us little of In spite of the recent admissions by the eminent fashioned them. Seligman has found implements of Le Moustier type more developed than any discovered elsewhere** ; it is possible that some retreated further south and may even have reached Rhodesia. comrades had who fled It north to Britain on the arrival of the men of La seems possible that some of their men of Solutre, and had survived there throughout this period, for, though no industry has been found in the British I Thus Burkitt (1921) I.42, 127, but Macalister (1921) before the beginning of the Solutrean period. many were produced, fresh areas map but no one has recently attempted to make a The French any country except Holland." dolmens in France, and pubhshed a it has been possible to test Perry's contention many is substantially true, it made a in early days ; of of the list number noted in each with sufficient accuracy, we find that giving the is in process of formation. The geographical : distribution of anthropological types in Wales. for sketches and notes on and Laibach, and above a U to Dr. Celtic languages it from this area that the have been thought by some to have entered the lands of the west. of importance is that the head was so attached to the body that it by torus, Another point could not have been held absolutely erect, and must have produced a slouching gait, though the degree of this slope varied considerably in different specimens, sku U was quite halfway between the slope and in the case of the the Gibraltar sku U of Rhodesian and that of the gorilla.'^ But is it unnecessary for our purpose to pursue this question further, for with the arrival of modern man, after the last glaciation was past, Neanderthal appeared. ; ; ; who cites his modern is unlikely, for Neanderthal successor. It has been suggested reached the north from tropical Africa,*^ but no evidence has been in support of this hypothesis. C., we have in Celtic lands, and that, though they overlap, they are tending to obtain for themselves definite areas of distribution. if of France and for food and the still saiga, not beyond, during the THE BRONZE AGE AND THE CELTIC WORLD 26 succeeding Solutrean period. which One of the most is concerned with a essential features, that the people, whoever they were, is monuments and amber and this hypothesis, pearls allied practices, ; they were, in who however, spread the cult were trave Uing in search of gold, fact, much silver, merchants in search of precious and easily portable commodities. believed that the from the dolmens to the chambered barrows Sweden. The stone circles, archaeologists in the evolution Denmark and {sepultures a galerie) of which are conspicuous in the Salisbury plain absent in France, and seem to have originated by the Baltic. Le Rougetil, drawings of swords froni the Buda-Pest Museum, to Sir Arthur Evans, Dr. II 71 - 81 - 92 - 104 117 A RECAPITULATION THE ARYAN CRADLE AND Q'S XIV THE WANDERINGS OF THE WIROS XV CONCLUSION App. yg - - - 83 _..-.--------- - 10 LEAF-SHAPED SWORD 11 BRONZE HILT OF LEAF-SHAPED SWORD 12 TANG, WITH FLANGED EDGES, SHAPED TO FIT THE HAND 13 CONVEX AND CONCAVE BUTTS 14 {a) SECTION NOT UNLIKE THAT OF A SPEAR-HEAD (&) RHOMBOID SECTION WITH CONCAVE SIDES - . To all these he wishes also to acknowledge the great help afforded London Library, the Society of Antiquaries, the Royal Anthropological Institute, the Hellenic Society and the Royal Asiatic Society, and to take this opportunity of thanking them for their unvarying courtesy. - - THE PROBLEM II THE FIRST INHABITANTS OF CELTIC LANDS III EARLY TRADE WITH CELTIC LANDS IV THE PROSPECTORS V THE CELTIC CRADLE I - - - - - 19 - - 34 48 61 MANY INVASIONS VII THE EVOLUTION OF THE LEAF-SHAPED SWORD VIII THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS IX GREEK LANDS AND THE BASIS OF CHRONOLOGY X THE IRON SWORD XII App. C3 P35 Bronze age and the Celtic world by Haro 3 1924 029 873 670 olin --v/ Overs THE BRONZE AGE AND THE CELTIC WORLD THE BRONZE AGE AND THE CELTIC WORLD BY HAROLD PEAKE, F. PREFACE THE substance of the following pages was delivered in February last in a series of six lectures at volume form the matter The University been somewhat has In College of Wales, Aberystwyth. So many attempts have been made during the locate the Aryan cradle and to trace the wanderings considered presumptuous for the author to last century and a of the Wiros, venture that quarter to may be it on a further suggestion. some that non-Celtic languages, such late times, while it is still all by believed it is as Pictish, survived in this region until relatively well-known that a primitive non-Celtic tongue, the Basque, spoken in the fastnesses before us Also of the Pyrenees. had flourished This industry lying to the east." first it Wiirm their While is different. by the invaders, and in Celtic THE FIRST INHABITANTS OF CELTIC LANDS lands at least were soon exterminated, though 23 just possible that they survived to it is a later date further east.*^ The culture of the started in newcomers Europe about 12,500 is A B. discovered and described, and though present day, there is known many great of these all and seems to have as that of Aurignac, skeletons of this period have been show us men very hke those among a considerable range of variation them.'* The of the skulls of the upper palaeohthic periods, apart from the Chancelade skull*^ to be discussed later, may no be divided into three marked groups, though strict uniformity among all members the it is well to remember that there is All the skulls of this period, of each group. it is to the men of the Cromagnon type that we must "attribute the beginnings of that art, which reached its finest development in a later age, and has provided the most conspicuous as well as the most pleasing feature of the upper palseohthic culture. 21, two i.) is us^ially skulls of the transition period and a few from palaeohthic to neolithic foimd at Ofnet of those belonging to the same period found at Mugem. characteristics of and intermixed types occupied west and central Europe, so 25 is it These types was habitable during Capelle and Cromagnon The noteworthy. Frequently associated with these megahthic monuments are other which are believed to belong to the same culture, though the association clearly established. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. find that the Celtic tongues, as spoken syntax, and not a few words too, which divide to-day, contain elements of them off sharply from those THE PROBLEM 17 groups of languages to which they are in other respects akin. known believed first an earher and warmer time did so," and unless this was the case it Though is in others seems have lasted through the temporary ame Uoration of the to Whether retreat. such crossing had took place before the Cromagnon type reached Europe. i and 2), the by Briinn I., Briix, Lautsch, Combe Capelle, now in the Musee de Menton, but not the woman from the upper layer in the Grotte des Enfants, the Calotte du gravier de fond at Grenelle, the Denise fragments, as well as by one or (No. THE Fl RSt INHABITANTS OF CELTIC LANDS modifications to some extent towards the the later palaeolithic periods, and the combinations of far as Combe characters in the skulls of Obercassel (Magdalenian period) in point of time is modern men. One type of elaborate temple is found only in Malta and in the adjacent island Such monuments have these features of Gozo.^ in common : the stones are large, they have not been hewn with chisels or axes, and they are orthostatic or set on end. N»m ^orh BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE FISKE ENDOWMENT FUND THE BEQUEST OF WILLARD FISKE LIBRARIAN OF THE UNIVERSITY 1868-18B3 1905 A ^^^ \^ PRINTEDIN U. leaf -shaped position He which the last vastly is distribution of the swords seem to provide a crucial test by which to gauge the value of previous suggestions. If true fair, if we pass across England and Wales from east to west, and the same we cross Scotland, while as we find, first of we proceed we come that the population This dark type is almost as mainly and across elements which are darker Wales and the West Highlands we of slender build. 285-314, where all authorities are fully cited ; Keith (1915) 118. THE FIRST INHABITANTS OF CELTIC LANDS 21 between the sku U from Chapelle-aux-Saints,"* the highest form yet discovered, and woman, which that of the Gibraltar man/' or rather As Europe. Of the we have only two examples, of these three groups first from the Grotte des Enfants, near Mentone.'" differ in some by the name But the mother and son as these are the ear Uest in date, and respects very markedly from the remainder, they have been distinguished owner of the cave, the Prince of the Grimaldi race, after the This type was small, being less than 5 ft. has caused the race to be termed negroid, and unjustifiable deductions have been drawn from this term. usually between 68 and 72 Thus we Grimaldi, ; the stature is moderate or The cephalic index find during the period of Aurignac three groups of long-headed Cromagnon and Combe Capelle, and, especially Grande cave and the Grotte des Enfants, of these types, while at Solutre skulls is low.^' men, the on the Riviera, in the Barma which show various apparent combinations and Laugerie Basse we find the last type showing 34 Ripley (1900) 39, 173. This view is supported by the fact that marked alveolar prognathism has been noted among the natives of Algeria and Morocco, and uncommonly met with in Spain it ; is has been attributed to a different cause. An huts, structures, larger where true megalithic structures are absent.^ attempt has been made to show that the dolmen originated in Egypt, and closely connected with the mastaba, the Elsewhere I have endeavoured to show that there are reasons the origin of these structures to the resemblances ' tomb used throughout the may inhabitants better be explained Fergusson (1872) Peet (191 2) 98-113 1 Peet (1912) 1-4 4 Smith ; Borlase (1897) ; ' ; Ashby, etc. A parallel Christianity, especially in these islands. can only plead that most of the previous attempts have been made by philologists, usually with Uttle or no archaeological experience, while the discoveries of quarter of a century have placed the inquirer to-day in a The evolution and superior to that of most of his predecessors. It is important, therefore, the factors which enter into the problem, that people were here before the some extent famihar with Celts arrived, first if we we should is are to have inquire what and that we should make ourselves to the different races and cultures which preceded the Celtic all invaders. by Obermaier^ and to be gaining ground, that in Celtic lands the industry of it is beyond of the first inhabitants of Celtic lands, 1. ; Morgan, it was probably these, who North Africa, who were responsible cites Hrdlicka. however, are long, for the broad-headed t5^e, so prevalent in Central Europe to-day, did not arrive until the closing phase. in long variety, having length-breadth indices of 68.5 and 69.2, and the jaws and teeth known project, so that they exhibit a character This latter character as prognathism. ^^ Lastly we have the type represented Barma Grande (one of the skulls from B. The t5^e high-headed as well as narrow-headed, and tends to have the orbits horizontally lengthened, the glabella and supraciliaries strong, the fore-head retreating, the nose broad and the upper jaw projecting (alveolar prognathism). earhest the Grimaldi, which has been found only near Mentone, and there are reasons for be Ueving that its distribution lay around the western Mediterranean, then an inland sea. Such are bee-hive stones, but not infrequently is is not so round towers, and dry walls with polygonal These are often found in close association with the erections of masonry. was THE PROSPECTORS 49 introduced into Egypt, perhaps at the beginning of the second pred5niastic period, from some region, such as Syria, common derived from a It where dolmens were known, or ancestry.^ has been suggested by some inquirers that the fashion of erecting such monuments megalithic to centre until regions between Ireland and Polynesia.* which has been associated many number use of conch shells and a or even within the it others, such as terrace cultivation, irrigation, the same mi Uenium, nor by saying that a early date, that developed these regions often was carried to a U these places simultaneously is it asserted that the people happen that a daughter which the parent The Roman idea introduced may, I think, became widely disseminated regions in which it at it be an took root, and that Thus might it might ultimately become spread through part of the region had arisen.

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